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Assessing and reporting student achievement

The page describes the methods of assessing student achievement in the range of subjects studied in Australian and New Zealand schools and how these assessments are reported on senior secondary certificates and related documents.

The page does not refer to calculation of tertiary entrance scores or rankings.

1. Assessment

Assessment is a judgement of student achievement or progress in a program of study and indicates the level of knowledge, skills and understanding achieved by the student.

There are four main methods of assessing students’ academic achievement:

 In Australia the methods of assessing student achievement are combinations of these. None of the states/territories uses a single method of assessment only.

External examinations

All students studying a subject sit for the same examination, normally at the end of the study period. The major purposes of external examinations may be to allow students to demonstrate their achievements against set standards and to rank all students in the state on a single specified scale.

Moderated school-based assessment

School-based assessment is done by teachers in schools using a variety of assessment methods. The marks from this assessment process are moderated by various factors including the school group’s performance at external exams or advice from outside experts. The reason for doing this is so that direct comparisons can be made between assessment marks awarded by different schools and marks placed on the same scale.

School-based assessment (not moderated)

School-based assessment is done by teachers in schools using a variety of assessment methods. In some states, the results of subjects with non-moderated assessments are recorded on certificates and other documents.

Policies and procedures aim to ensure that the standards for student assessment are followed as stated in the syllabus or course documents. The assessments may be subjected to some form of moderation within the school but there is no system-wide moderation. However, courses and assessment procedures may be accredited by the central assessment and certification authority.

External scaling tests

The content of these tests may be based on state curriculum or may be an assessment of general scholastic ability. The tests are used to rank students on a statewide basis.

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2. Reporting

Student achievement may be reported by using numbers (marks, scores or percentages), grades or descriptive statements.


Marks usually indicate a student’s relative standing compared with other members of the candidature. Marks can be totalled or averaged for comparison of achievement levels. Raw marks are rarely used. The marks are usually subjected to scaling or standardisation to put them on a common scale.


Grades may represent

Descriptive statements

Statements such as Very High Achievement or Satisfactory Achievement may be written on certificates to describe a student’s performance in achieving defined objectives and standards.

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3. FAQs

What assessment method(s) are used for the senior secondary school leaving credential in New Zealand?

Assessment for the NCEA is both school-based or internal (nationally moderated by the Qualifications Authority), and external, through examinations conducted by the Qualifications Authority. Each achievement standard is assessed either internally or externally, and the standards grouped within each subject involve a mix of both internal and external assessment. Unit standards are all internally assessed. The Scholarship Certificate qualification will be fully externally assessed and is registered at level 4 on the New Zealand Register of Quality-Assured Qualifications.

Reporting achievement

School students having valid entries in NQF standards receive first, an interim results notice showing their attainment on the standards, and second, a Record of Learning that shows all of their achieved credits for unit standards and achievement standards, plus any Framework qualifications awarded.

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How are the marks determined in New Zealand?

As outlined in the Assessment and Certification Rules and Procedures for Secondary Schools for 2003:

School marks are adjusted to ensure that results for individual subjects and individual candidates are processed as required by the Qualifications Authority to provide examination marks that are comparable to final results for different subjects.

Results in each prescribed subject of the examination are reported in percentage marks and grades. Grades A to E are awarded in each subject according to the following table:


Final % Mark Range











Candidates who enter in three or more subjects in any one year will have their percentage marks for that year aggregated. The following qualifications will be based on the resulting aggregated percentage mark:

Aggregate Mark

Name of Qualification


New Zealand Bursary (B Level)


New Zealand Bursary (A Level)

provided that:

Candidates who have achieved results in the UEBS examinations in more than one year, and who have gained aggregate marks of 250 to 299 or 300 or better in no more than five different subjects, may apply to the Qualifications Authority for a New Zealand Bursary at A or B level.

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